Closed Loop Control Systems for Supplementary Lighting in Smart Greenhouses
With the global trend of increasing urban population, there is therefore an observably growing demand for fresh, high quality, flavor and nutrition-rich food to be supported for the cities. The main market drivers of Greenhouse, Hydroponic and Aeroponic food production are increasing production costs, challenging weather- and climatic conditions and increasing power prices.
While the natural lighting is considered to be the most energy efficient for growing plants, for the increased yield, it is often financially beneficial to apply supplementary lighting; especially during seasons with lower Daily Light Integral (DLI). Then the goods sell prices are higher and in some instances, the production is to be suppressed for this timeframe due to inappropriate light conditions.
This paper focuses on the estimation of DLI per region and per season in the EMEA region, the lighting requirements of certain plants and introduces a method for calculating the peak Return on Investment hence. The aim is to compare fixed Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF) systems with adaptive spectral- and intensity controlled solutions from a financial point of view and briefly introduce core technologies available for the latter.